In these days of information overload visual representations offer a useful strategy for helping students see patterns and connections. They also help make information accessible to all learners, including those with EAL or reading challenges.
I’d like to explore some links and tools for collecting data (raw and unprocessed) and turning it into something that communicates a meaningful message (information). A trend that has been gathering momentum recently is the idea of presenting information through well-designed infographics combining illustrations, text and charts of one kind or another. Here’s a nice example on photosynthesis from Kids Discover.
These infographics often include data visualisations, which show the relationships between data sets using colours and shapes, maybe as a timeline, diagram, flowchart, map, word cloud, graph, concept web or table. Have a look at this TED talk from David McCandless about how these representations can help us to see patterns and connections and ‘make information beautiful’.
You’ll find some lovely examples of these on David’s website, and a Pinterest search of ‘infographics’ reveals many more. Here’s a selection aimed at children from Reading Rockets. The Daily Infographic has a new, data-filled illustration each day and a good catalogue of past finds. I have my own collection of links for data and infographics on Pinterest too.
In order for children to get the most out of infographics, they will need to learn how to read and navigate them and how to interpret the charts and diagrams. TechChef4u has 8 lesson ideas for developing infographic interpretation skills. Even better, children can deepen their understanding by making their own infographics. Online tools such as piktochart, visual.ly and infogr.am, with pre-defined templates offer a simple way to start.
The beauty of these tools is the potential for children to combine their own local investigations with data from around the world and compare trends. This can give them a feel for the difference between first hand data (primary data) and data collected by someone else (secondary data). They come with built-in charts for displaying quantitative data, or you can create your own with tools such as Google Chart Editor, Pictograph Creator, or Piecolour. You can make your own pictograms in Excel or add word clouds using Wordle or Tagul. All of these diagrams can then be added to the emerging infographic.
If you’re feeling ambitious you could take the infographics idea a stage further by adding data and information to films using YouTube Annotations Editor or to photostories in Animoto or PhotoPeach. Get inspiration from Little Red Riding Hood reinterpreted as a data story by Tomas Nilsson or this amazing video from General Electric about capturing and converting energy from train brakes.
With infographics creation as a way of sharing findings, children can be encouraged to adopt an inquiry-based approach to data collection and research in collaboration with their peers. It is worth pausing at the beginning of such a project to allow time to come up with a provocative and tantalising question. Watch Ewan McIntosh’s video The Problem Finders and think about how giving students time to define their own problems can help them think more dynamically.
One starting point might be to brainstorm individual topics within an overall theme such as ‘change’. Taking an historical approach, children could explore census data on the National Archives website and compare it with a database they construct about themselves, including making their own family tree. From a geographical point of view they could use History Pin and the historical imagery slider in Google Earth to investigate how places have changed over time: (the Beijing and London Olympic Stadiums, the shrinking Aral Sea and the building of the Palm Jumeirah in Dubai are good examples). Climate change offers another slant, with opportunities to scroll around 26,000 weather stations on Wundermaps, or to look at Metlink, GlobalWarmingKids or resources from Education Scotland. You’ll find some great ideas on TechChef4u for combining webtools, apps and data sources to explore data patterns. Alongside these sources, survey tools such as Google Forms and Survey Monkey can be used to collect local data.
Whether you are reading them or creating them, infographics offer a dramatic way to share data stories. The layering of visuals and text means that they can be interpreted on many levels, making it easier for all learners to make meaning for themselves. See if you can make information beautiful in your classroom!
I have been playing around with media on iPads and the internet, and combining sound, images, video and text in various ways on a Christmas theme.
One of the benefits of the iPad is its versatility when working with media. Many apps can be integrated with one another to create shareable digital products such as animations, songs, films, designs, slideshows, and ebooks. By giving children open-ended problems and creative tools to engage with, the iPad can become a real tool for thinking rather than just a collection of apps, allowing them to refine and present their ideas in a purposeful way.
Bearing this in mind, here are some ideas you might like to try on a Christmas theme.
How about creating an eCard on the iPad by customising an image using the sketch effect in BeFunky (free) and then adding a message and layout in Phoster (£1.49). This type of activity will give children a feel for how the iPad can be a dynamic art tool giving them experiences they couldn’t gain in any other way. They might also think about the poetic language of carols:
(http://flic.kr/p/buewKX, http://flic.kr/p/5ENC2y, http://flic.kr/p/4axspQ, http://flic.kr/p/5LNL8c, http://flic.kr/p/5EsjuA, http://flic.kr/p/4dyCTU, http://flic.kr/p/7nQddX, http://flic.kr/p/59Zyon).
The source images for these cards came from the Flickr search tool Compfight, which helps you find Creative Commons licensed images for remixing and resusing.
Sticking with the idea of images, you could use the Comic Life app (£2.99) to create instructions for a Christmas recipe. This would be a fantastic way to document any practical classroom work. One of my GTP students had the great idea to combine images from Toca Hair Salon in Comic Life. Read more on her blog Sara’s Sources.
iPads can also make movies and combine sound and animations from other apps. How about creating a film based on a Christmas story in iMovie (£2.99) and adding your own music from Garageband (£2.99), or a stop-frame animation in I Can Animate? (Here’s a video on how to add the music). Or you could use the wonderful iMovie trailers to document preparations for Christmas. (Here’s how). Our Year 3 students at the University of Northampton made trailers on the theme of story genres:
Another advantage of the iPads is their portability, making it easier to capture learning that takes place outside the classroom. And one great way of getting out and about with technology is through QR codes, quick scannable images, like bar codes, which take you to a digital destination such as a written or spoken message, a document or a website when you hold a webcam, phone, iPad or iPod camera up to them.
Try using Scan by QR Code City. (Here are some instructions). Imagine how engaging it would be for your children to have the code for book trailers they made in iMovie inserted into library books, to go on a treasure hunt looking for coded clues, or to have a talking display of work in the classroom. You might try making a seasonal QR code trail based on finding the carols to spell a mystery word by encoding links to youtube videos.
These two tools are so simple to use and yet produce results which children would be proud to share. Both tools also allow you to add text, opening up possibilities for creating or interpreting poems in words and pictures, or for exploring themes in other subjects.I used Compfight to find these creative commons images to make my slideshows: Magic bokeh! by kevin dooley, merryxmas by nivekhmng,The Grinch by pareeerica, Christmas Tree Fruit by Lutz-R. Frank, and Happylucky by in da mood.
I hope this has given you some ideas on ways to help children create using digital media and how mobile technologies can offer rich cross-curricular learning opportunities.
Teaching computing in schools is a hot topic right now. And one of the ideas under debate is whether children should begin to learn computer science in Primary schools, so that they grow up with an ability to use code creatively rather than just passively consume computer programs made by others.
Have a look at these kids interviewing some high calibre applicants for Code Club, a national initiative introducing programming to Years 5 and 6. They are unimpressed by Tim Berners-Lee inventing the World Wide Web but decide to hire the Duke of York for his connections!
You can well imagine that children of this age will jump at the chance to make their own computer games, but where does the novice Primary teacher start with all of this? Code Club suggests using the free software Scratch, a child-friendly visual programming language in which you snap together coloured blocks to assemble your script like a jigsaw. You can make interactive stories, animations and games, share your projects with the world and remix other people’s scripts.
This means that you don’t really have to start from scratch at all: you can find a project you like the look of and modify the script to suit your own ideas. Primary-aged children respond well to this problem solving approach where they think of an idea, look at what others have done, create a prototype, debug, get feedback and redesign. At the MIT lab they see the computer design process as a continuous spiral that combines many 21st Century skills:
Here’s how Simon Haughton sums up the program writing process as a Learning Intention:
Simon also shares his school’s plans for progression in programming from Year 1 to Year 6. However, before they can get creative with Scratch, children using the software for the first time will need to understand the basic concepts and begin to learn some of the terminology. (Word cloud made in Tagul.)
Good starting places for beginners might be this introductory guide from MIT, these Simple introductory lessons from Redware or the Scratch Cards from the MIT site ScratchED which you can print and laminate. EdTechLounge has some resources for Key Stage 1, TES online suggests simple lessons for low ability students starting out with Scratch, and Miss Flavia’s blog shares how she begins by designing aquariums for her young students’ fish sprites to swim in.
If you like the aquarium idea have a look at Miles Berry’s video on making an animated underwater scene.
You could continue the fishy theme and progress to making a shark attack game using this set of instructions on the Teach-ICT website, where there is also a fantastic selection of how-to’s for other classic games and some useful assessment tracking sheets.
Once your pupils have explored the basics, step-by-step game-making guides such as these are a good way to learn more. Here’s a selection:
Whack-a-witch game from Code Club,
Make a Bat and Ball, Dog and Crab and Fish! games from Redware
You can follow up by challenging them to modifying their games by changing the size or speed of the sprites, making them look different, changing the theme or adding sounds. You’ll find that children learn to program at different speeds but all will learn something new each lesson and it will be important to recognise their achievements.
If you have a blog you can embed your Scratch projects by following these instructions.
Once your class is hooked on programming, it is also worth looking at Kodu, another free visual programming language made specifically for creating games in 3D landscapes. Here’s Stuart Ridout demonstrating how to make a simple apple collecting game in Kodu. The option to use an Xbox controller with your computer instead of the keyboard is sure to appeal.
Finally here’s a set of further links: http://sqworl.com/cono6d.
Hopefully, you’ll find something in the above resources that will help you get started. The good thing is that, with these easy-to-use approaches to programming, you don’t need to be an expert or even have any previous programming experience yourself. You just need to scratch the surface and watch them go!