Foundation Study Framework students are currently in the midst of completing their end of year assessments, and we wish them the best of luck with these!
Following on from a mostly positive review of the GRIT programme from those that attended (see blogs 6 and 7 for details on this), we were interested to know how well the GRIT programme’s own survey compared with the UoN’s own COGS survey that student’s also completed in term one and term two (see blogs 2 and 3 for more details on this). Both these surveys have been based on previously published self-efficacy scales and have previously both shown good internal reliability.
The GRIT survey consisted of 10 statements whereby students self-scored on a four-point LIKERT Scale, and a further 17 key skills items whereby students self-scored on how good they felt they were (see Appendix 1 below for full details).
All scales showed good internal reliability using the current data when tested using Cronbach’s alpha (COGS Survey= 20 items; α= .846; GRIT LIKERT Scale= 10 items; α=.829, and GRIT Rating Scale= 17 items; α= .883). The GRIT LIKERT Scale contained a mixture of positive and negative statements. Whilst this can reduce the chances of acquiescence bias (a tendency to agree with statements, especially when in doubt) from the respondent (Dodd-McCue and Tartaglia, 2010), it can cause problems for statistical analysis, particularly when measuring internal reliability (Salazar, 2015). Negative statements data was therefore reverse coded for analysis.
Interestingly, whilst there were a few weak to moderate correlations between individual questions, overall there was no significant correlation between the mean scores of the GRIT LIKERT scale and the COGS LIKERT scale (r (59)= .045, p= .728).
As self-reporting scales are particularly vulnerable to acquiescence bias (Dodd-McCue and Tartaglia, 2010), it could be recommended that the COGS survey incorporates a mixture of positive and negative statements rather than just positive to avoid potential this potential bias.
However there was a moderate positive correlation between the GRIT Rating Scale and the COGS LIKERT Scale (r(59)= .414, p= .001). This could be because the statements within both surveys are more similar in their design. However there was a also a moderate positive correlation between the GRIT Rating Scale and the GRIT LIKERT Scale (r(59)= .480, p= .001) which contradicts the idea that surveys benefit from being of similar design. A final argument could be that the COGS survey and the GRIT surveys are based on two different previously published self-efficacy surveys, which could explain some of the discrepancies when comparing the data.
On a final note, no correlations were found between any of the three self-efficacy scores and the highest level of qualification students held. There was also no association with highest level of qualification held and whether students engaged with the GRIT programme. However the majority (n= 42 (69%)) of students held level 3 qualifications, with only 4 (7%) students holding Entry Level qualifications, 4 (7%) students holding level 4 qualifications, and 11 (17%) holding level 2 qualifications. It could be argued that there is not enough data in the latter categories to identify any patterns.
Appendix 1: GRIT Self-efficacy baseline survey
|Four Point LIKERT Scale (Strongly agree, Agree, Disagree, Strongly Disagree)||Rating scale (1-10, with 1 being Poor and 10 being Excellent)|
|On the whole I am satisfied with myself||Self-esteem|
|I often think I am no good at all||Self-confidence|
|I feel that I have a number of good qualities||Speaking in front of other people|
|I am able to do things as well as most other people||Setting and reviewing goals for the future|
|I feel I do not have much to be proud of||Developing positive relationships with new people|
|I feel useless sometimes||Ability to work with others|
|I feel that I’m a person of worth, at least on an equal plane with others||Supporting others|
|I wish I could have more respect for myself||Accepting others|
|I am inclined to feel that I am a failure||Developing relationships with adults|
|I take a positive attitude toward myself||Being on time|
Outside of the LIKERT scale students were also asked ‘What’s the highest qualification you have got?‘ and given a choice ranging from Entry Level to Level 4, and ‘other- please specify’
|Taking responsibility for your actions|
|Ability to solve problems|
|Dealing with challenging situations|